The Age of the Earth

It is generally accepted that the Big Bang, some billion years ago, marked the beginning of the expansion of the Universe. We know this occurred billion years ago because the expansion of the Universe offers several natural clocks with which to date it. The first and more notable of these clocks is the red shift, or Doppler Effect, and the second is the presence of cosmic microwave background radiation. The expansion of the universe and its natural clocks which will be explained below has resulted in much debate among Creationists, with some incorporating these scientific conclusions into their beliefs, and others choosing to deny the Big Bang and expanding universe entirely. Edwin Hubble, a s astronomer, first discovered evidence of an expanding universe when he noted that all visible galaxies appear to be moving away from each other. Based on a property of light called the red shift, he noticed that the farther away a galaxy was, the faster it was receding. This relationship, known as Hubble’s Law, has been repeatedly verified Dalrymple In , Georges Lemaitre, a Belgian astronomer, noted that this observation is most easily explained if the Universe started at a definable time in the past with a violent expansion of matter and energy that was originally highly compressed and intensely hot Dalrymple Thus, the idea of the Big Bang was born. The most important confirmation of the Big Bang came from a discovery in by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, two engineers working for Bell Laboratories.

Independent age estimates

An overview is presented of the current situation regarding radioactive dating of the matter of which our Galaxy is comprised. The reasonable assumption of an approximately uniform nucleosynthesis rate yields an age for the Galaxy of Estimates of the age of the Galaxy, and thereby limits on the age of the Universe, can be obtained by three independent means: i the age of the elements by radioactive dating nucleocosmochronology ; ii the ages of the globular clusters the oldest stars in the halo of our Galaxy ; and iii the ages of white dwarfs from cooling calculations the age of the Galactic disk?

This paper will focus on radioactive dating, an approach that has played a particularly important role historically.

The Universe is measured to be billion years old, with a remarkably small uncertainty. But how did we arrive at that number?

We hear that rocks are a certain age, and stars are another age. And the Universe itself is But how do astronomers figure this out? And how do you know? How do we know old how everything is when what we observe was around long before calendars, or the Earth, or even the stars? Scientists have pondered about the age of things since the beginning of science. When did that rock formation appear? When did that dinosaur die? How long has the Earth been around? When did the Moon form?

What about the Universe?

Dating the Earth, the Sun, and the Stars

A team of 1, scientists from around the world contributed to the detection of gravitational waves from a merging pair of binary neutron stars, followed by the detection of gamma-rays. Boston: Astronomers have used gravitational waves – ripples in the fabric of space and time caused by a violent cosmic event – to measure the age of the universe.

The direct detection of gravitational waves from at least five sources during the past two years offers spectacular confirmation of Einstein’s model of gravity and space-time, researchers said. They then identified the origin of the cataclysm in a source in the galaxy NGC spotted in images taken with various time delays at wavelengths from the X-ray to the radio.

NGC, its host galaxy, has an outward velocity due to the expansion of the universe that can be measured from its spectral lines.

Before so-called radiometric dating, Earth’s age was anybody’s guess. universe, which was then estimated to be about billion years old.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Eighty-eight cosmologists who represented a wide range of individual scientific disciplines attended the colloquium. Also present were two science reporters. The purpose of the colloquium was to address the three interconnected problems that have the center stage in modern physical cosmology today. They are: i the age of the universe, ii the dark matter of the universe, and iii the formation of structures in the universe.

In the last 2 years, new experimental and observational data have dramatically changed the nature of each of these problems and have more sharply defined the issues. This NAS colloquium brought together the experts on these specific topics to present the cutting-edge developments in each and to emphasize their interdependence and interdisciplinary nature. The detections by COBE, South Pole, balloon, and other experiments of microwave background radiation anisotropy have provided a powerful tool for probing structure-formation scenarios in the universe.

Also, most recently, the use of gravitational lensing and the so-called Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect have led to a renewal of age-Hubble constant constraints. New dark matter searches for nonbaryonic particle candidates are underway, and constraints from satellite x-ray gas observations and from gravitational lensing of clusters of galaxies are growing.

There have been new reports on actual, direct searches for axions and other nonbaryonic dark matter candidates. The controversy of how to form structures rapidly in the universe continues and interrelates the microwave anisotropy and dark matter problems with the observed distributions of galaxies.

How are the ages of the Earth and universe calculated?

Age may only be a number, but when it comes to the age of the universe, it’s a pretty important one. According to research, the universe is approximately How did scientists determine how many candles to put on the universe’s birthday cake?

Yet at the dawn of this century, the universe’s age remained far from oldest meteorites, effectively dating the solar system but not the universe.

In physical cosmology , the age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang. The current measurement of the age of the universe is around The uncertainty has been narrowed down to 20 million years, based on a number of studies which all gave extremely similar figures for the age. These include studies of the microwave background radiation by the Planck spacecraft , the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and other space probes.

Measurements of the cosmic background radiation give the cooling time of the universe since the Big Bang, [3] and measurements of the expansion rate of the universe can be used to calculate its approximate age by extrapolating backwards in time. The Lambda-CDM concordance model describes the evolution of the universe from a very uniform, hot, dense primordial state to its present state over a span of about This model is well understood theoretically and strongly supported by recent high-precision astronomical observations such as WMAP.

In contrast, theories of the origin of the primordial state remain very speculative. If one extrapolates the Lambda-CDM model backward from the earliest well-understood state, it quickly within a small fraction of a second reaches a singularity. This is known as the ” initial singularity ” or the ” Big Bang singularity”. This singularity is not understood as having a physical significance in the usual sense, but it is convenient to quote times measured “since the Big Bang” even though they do not correspond to a physically measurable time.

If one referred to the same era as ” Though the universe might in theory have a longer history, the International Astronomical Union [5] presently use “age of the universe” to mean the duration of the Lambda-CDM expansion, or equivalently the elapsed time since the Big Bang in the current observable universe.

How scientists figure the age of the universe

Simanek Abstract: Scientific estimates of the age of the earth and the universe show a consistent tendency to increase at an increasing rate as time goes on. This relation has been surprisingly consistent during the last three centuries. The implications of this are, of course, profound, for they impact on both the future and the past history of time itself. Figure 1. The estimated age of the universe as a function of the time the estimate was made.

Radioisotope dating has revealed that the age of the Earth is – billion Islamic, and Judaic scholars insist that the age of the Earth and the universe is.

Creationist’s Blind Dates. The standard scientific estimate is that the universe is about 15 billion years old, the earth about 4. It is important to recognize from the start that there are independent procedures for obtaining each of these estimates, and that the procedures yield ranges of values that overlap. In the case of the universe, estimates can be obtained from astronomical methods or considerations of nuclear reactions.

Astrophysicists can measure the rate at which galaxies are receding and use these measurements to compute the time needed for the universe to expand to its present size. A second, independent, astronomical method is to use standard techniques to measure some parameters of stars mass, luminosity, compositor, and surface temperature , from which a well-confirmed theory of the life histories of stars enables physicists to compute their. Finally, considerations of radioactive decay make it possible to calculate the time at which certain heavy elements were formed.

Age of the Universe

Using known distances of 50 galaxies from Earth to refine calculations in Hubble’s constant, a research team led by a University of Oregon astronomer estimates the age of the universe at Approaches to date the Big Bang, which gave birth to the universe, rely on mathematics and computational modeling, using distance estimates of the oldest stars, the behavior of galaxies and the rate of the universe’s expansion.

The idea is to compute how long it would take all objects to return to the beginning. A key calculation for dating is the Hubble’s constant, named after Edwin Hubble who first calculated the universe’s expansion rate in

noted Sky & Telescope, dating back to a mere million years after the Big The earliest age of the universe was filled with light from the Big Bang. The age of the black hole found in December, per , puts it.

By: Maria Temming July 18, 1. You can unsubscribe anytime. The age of the universe is approximately This age is calculated by measuring the distances and radial velocities of other galaxies, most of which are flying away from our own at speeds proportional to their distances. But extrapolating back to the Big Bang also requires knowing the history of the expansion rate, which we can learn about by examining the current density and composition of the universe. Cosmologists have studied observations of the cosmic microwave background, relic radiation leftover from the Big Bang, to determine these parameters.

Planck improved upon WMAP’s observations with greater sensitivity and resolution. As of , Planck data has set the age of the universe at about Log in to Reply. By: Maria Temming July 18, Night Sky Sights. By: Daniel Johnson November 19, Resources and Education. By: Stuart Goldman February 27,

The Age of the Universe is a Function of Time

The Earth is 4,54 billion years old. This age has been determined with the radioactive dating technique. The precise decay rate of radioactive elements is used as a clock: the number of daughter products in one rock indicates its age. The oldest meteorites ever dated in the Solar System are 4,56 billion years old, the oldest minerals on Earth are 4,4 billion years old, and the oldest rocks on Earth are 4 billion years old.

These ages are very consistent because the meteorites had to form before the accretion of our planet, and the Earth had to cool down before the first minerals could crystallise.

astronomers estimates the age of the universe at billion years. A key calculation for dating is the Hubble’s constant, named after Edwin.

Aug 21 1 Elul Torah Portion. How old is the world? Ancient commentators propose that the world may be simultaneously young and old. One of the most obvious perceived contradictions between Torah and science is the age of the universe. Is it billions of years old, like scientific data, or is it thousands of years, like Biblical data? When we add up the generations of the Bible, we come to plus years. Whereas, data from the Hubble telescope or from the land based telescopes in Hawaii, indicate the age at about 15 billion years.

Let me clarify right at the start. The world may be only some years old. God could have put the fossils in the ground and juggled the light arriving from distant galaxies to make the world appear to be billions of years old.

Misconceptions About the Universe

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